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Tuesday, 5 October 2021

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The consumption of mushrooms probably occurred during prehistory, in the hunting and gathering period. The Chinese and Japanese have utilized mushrooms for medicinal purposes for thousands of years. The mushroom was first cultivated in France in 1960. It was then taken up in England and from there it spread to rest of the world. Today, Covid-19 pandemic has affected people directly or indirectly in different ways. The number of people in the world is facing the problem of hunger, malnutrition, poverty and unemployment as consequences of COVID-19. Because mushroom cultivation does not demand land space and heavy input of labour and money, it can be developed as a small industry to check poverty and unemployment at same time. The only short-term benefit of Covid was a significant reduction in air pollution which unfortunately increased due to crop residues burning in the latter part of the lockdown, causing health issues as well as contributing to global warming. 


Mycoremediation is the use of fungi to degrade pollutants from the environment. Fungi especially mushrooms have the innate capability to breakdown wide range of agro-waste, disassembling their long-chained polymer into simpler form by producing variety of extracellular enzymes. Hence, biological pretreatment of such wastes with mushrooms is not only economically and environmentally attractive but also provides a rich addition to the diet in form of functional food - The mushrooms which can fulfil minimum nutritional requirement especially in terms of protein deficiency among malnourished people. They can also be used as tonics, medicines, cosmeceuticals, and as natural biocontrol agents in plant protection with insecticidal, fungicidal, bactericidal, herbicidal, nematocidal, and antiphytoviral activities. The carbon dioxide, produced during the mushroom cultivation, can further be used in green houses and indoor gardens. CO2 can often be a limiting factor for plant growth. As CO2 concentration rises above ambient levels, net photosynthesis increases. This improves plant fitness and can increase production. The significance of mushroom farming does not end with the above mentioned heads. The agro-wastes left after mushroom harvest is called Spent Mushroom Substrate (SMS). It can be further composted to manure by using Cellulolytic fungi (Trichoderma sp.) through rapid composting method. The vermicomposting is another effective way of recycling of this manure with the help of earthworms for the production of vermicompost. Microbial enrichment of manure can be done for improving its nutrient status. These products can be used to promote organic farming in view of the growing demand for safe and healthy food and long term sustainability and concern on environmental pollution associated with indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals. The multidimensional applications of the mushroom cultivation have the potential to address important issues confronting humanity and pave the way for a brighter future. (PDF/PPT)


Cited this as:

     Siddhant, P.O. Ukaogo and Shalini Mishra (2021): Mushroom cultivation: A way for better future. International Scientific Research and Innovation Congress, Istanbul. September 11-12, 2021. In: Abstract book edited by Ömer Gökhan ULUM and Ahmet AKBABA. pp. 218-219.

Saturday, 25 September 2021

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Animal wastes are generated worldwide in a huge amount. Disposal of this bulk waste is a global environmental problem accounting to pollution of soil and ground water sources. Because of these wastes are nutritionally rich, so these can be used as supplements in the mushroom industry. In present study, few wastes viz., Chicken feather (CF), Fish scale (FS) and Sheep hair (SH) were evaluated as supplement @15% on dry weight basis of substrate for enhancing yield and biological efficiency of elm oyster mushroom Hypsizygus ulmarius. Wheat straw (WS) was used as a growing medium. All the animal wastes were autoclaves at 15 lbs for 60 min while wheat straw was pasteurized in the solution of Formaldehyde (500 ppm) and Bavistin (75 ppm) for 18 hours. The measured parameters were net yield (Weight of fresh mushrooms), biological efficiency and number of fruiting bodies produced varied among themselves. All the supplemented sets except FS+WS showed early mycelial colonization, primordial development and fruit bodies maturation than control which ranged from 14-18 days, 17-19 days and 21-23 days, respectively. The fish scale containing sets could not show even the mycelial initiation from the spawn. Among the animal wastes used, only the set with Chicken feather produced significantly higher yield and biological efficiency (618.67 gm, 123.61 %) of mushroom than the control (548 gm, 109.6%). It also produced significant number of mushroom fruit bodies (41). The percentage yield of different wastes was also evaluated. In comparison to non-supplemented sets (31.84%), chicken feather contributed 35.95% of total mushroom production followed by sheep wool (32.19%). Chicken feather also showed highest percentage yield increase (+12.89) over control. (PDF)


Cited this as: 

     Siddhant, P.O. Ukaogo and Mahesh Kumar (2021): Supplementation of animal wastes and its impact on yield of elm oyster mushroom Hypsizygus ulmarius. International Marmara Scientific Research and Innovation Congress, Istanbul. August 21-22, 2021. p. 577.

Tuesday, 15 June 2021

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Morchella, the true morels, belonging to to Helvellaceae family of class Ascomycetes, are amongst the most highly prized fungi in the world. Their artificial production is still a challenge, even though patents for their cultivation do exist. The tissue of Morchella sp. was transferred aseptically to Potato Dextrose Agar medium (peeled, sliced and boiled potato, 200 g; dextrose, 20 g; agar, 20 g L-1) to grow hyphae. The mycelium showed fastest growth as compared to other edible mushrooms. It covered entire area of Petri plate (90 mm) within 4-5 days with the growth rate of 18-22.5mm/day. A unique growth pattern i.e. vertically oriented mycelia were observed. Brown coloured pigmentation in the culture was also observed during the study. The basal media for spawn (wheat grains; Glucose, 1%, CaCO3, 2%; CaSO4, 1.5% and MgSO4, 1%) was aseptically inoculated with the mushroom culture. The spawn substrate was colonized by mushroom mycelium in 7-8 days. The sclerotia were formed in unused (old) spawn. Wheat straw was used as a substrate for mushroom cultivation. It was supplemented with wheat bran, 20%, Glucose (1%) and MgSO4 (1%). It showed prolific growth when it was seeded by mushroom spawn using jar method. Once substrate was fully covered with mushroom mycelium, casing was applied. Sclerotia were successfully obtained after 14 days of incubation in our experiment both in the substrate and casing soil but failed to give rise to fruiting primordial. Further research is going on to domesticate this species in this part of country. (PPT)


Cited this as:  Siddhant, O.P. Ukaogo, Ruchira Singh and RS Kanaujia  (2020): Sclerotia production: a way ahead to Morchella cultivation. 3nd International Conference on Innovative Studies of Contemporary Sciences (Tokyo Summit-3) Tokyo, Japan. February 19-21, 2022. p.60. (Link)

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 Tikri Reserved Forest of Eastern Uttar Pradesh situated in Tarabganj sub-division of Gonda district (U.P.) lying at 26°20′06″N latitude and on 82°15′40″E longitude. It is spread over an area of 70 km2 which is characterized by typical terai landscape. This area is very rich in vegetation with Sal (Shorea robusta) and Teak forests (Tectona grandis) as the main tree species. It also harbours  a  rich  diversity  of  economical  and  medicinal  plant  species,  mainly  confined  to  the peripheral region of the forest.  Along with affluent flora, the reserve forest is also endowed with many mammalian fauna. To explore the mushroom flora of this Forest, various field surveys were conducted during the monsoon period of the years 2016 – 2019, in which a total of fifty three mushroom species belonging to thirty seven genera were collected and identified from different localities of the reserved forest so far  (Table.1, Plate.1).  

In the field, mature and well developed fruit bodies are being collected carefully. The macroscopic features of the fruiting bodies (e.g. shape, size and colour of sporophore) were noted in the field while the microscopic features (e.g. spore shape) were noted in laboratory. Various ecological parameters have also been recorded along with other field data such as habit, habitat etc. Well developed fruit bodies have been photographed. The collections were then wrapped in waxed paper and brought to the laboratory for further study. The morphotaxonomic features of Arora (1986), Singer (1986) and were mainly followed. 

The majority of the species were saprophytic in nature, while parasitic and symbiotic were also recorded. Among them Termitomyces  globulus,  T. heimii, T. microcapus, Russula delica. R. nobilis,  R. senecis, Marasmius haematocephalus, M. siccus and Xylaria sp. were frequent  mushroom species while Amanita sp., Auricularia sp., Calvatia sp., Coprinus comatus, C. cinereus, Daldinia concentrica, Dacryopinax sp., Ganoderma  applanatum, G. lucidum, Geastrum saccatum, Laccaria sp., Lepiota sp., Lentinus sp., Leucoagaricus sp.,  Leucocoprinus medioflavus, L. cepaestipes ,L. cretaceous, Lycoperdon sp., Mutinus caninus, Mycena sp., Panaeolus sp., Phallus indusiatus,  Podoscypha petalodes, Ramaria sp., Scleroderma sp., Schizophyllum commune, Tricholoma giganteum, Volvariella bombycina, V. volvacea,  Tulostoma brumale were occasionally found. Boletus sp. and Pleurotus cystidiosus were rarely found. These species were recorded during the year 2016-2018 (Siddhant et al., 2019 a). In the early monsoon of the year 2019, three new mushroom species viz., Astraeus hygrometricus, Conocybe sp., Chantharellus subalbidus were collected from the selective localities of the reserved forest (Siddhant et al., 2019 b) while in the late monsoon, a total of nine mushroom species viz., Chlorophyllum brunneum, Laccaria fraternal, Macrolepiota procera, Marasmius curreyi, M. epiphyllus, Parasola plicatilis, Termitomyces fuliginosus, Volvariella pusilla and Xylaria polymorpha have been identified on the basis of their taxonomical characters. The mushroom species were greater in number in the month of August and September during 2016-2019 while lesser number of species were noticed in the month of July. The greater relative humidity, more rain fall and moderate temperature range probably accounted for more fructification and hence appearance of greater number of species in those months. Agaricales were predominant order comprised 13 families followed by Polyporales and Bolatales which consisted 3 families each. Auriculariales, Cantharellales, Dacrymycetales, Geastrales, Gomphales, Phallales, Russulales and Xylariales comprising of one family each. Most of the genera belonged to order Agaricales (84%) followed by Polyporales and Bolatales (12% each) and Phallales and Xylariales (8% each). The least gerena were recorded for the order Auriculariales, Cantharellales, Dacrymycetales, Geastrales, Russulales and Gomphales (4% each). Amongst different families of Agaricales, Agaricaceae consisted higher number of Genera (9) followed by Bolbitiaceae with two genera. Rest of the families viz., Amanitaceae, Hydnangiaceae, Lyophyllaceae, Marasmiaceae, Mycenaceae, Pleurotaceae, Psathyrellaceae, Schizophyllaceae and Tricholomataceae contained one genera each. The species, recorded during observation were found growing on different types of substrates. These were grouped into: (a) Species growing on soil or humus, (b) Species growing on wood, (c) Species growing on partially decomposed leaf litter, (d) Species growing in and around termite nests, and (e) Species growing on dung. Greater number of species was recorded from the soil (23) followed by wood (17), partially decomposed leaf litter (8) and termite nest (4). The dung harboured a single mushroom species. Few mushroom species such as Leucocoprinus medioflavus and Volvariella volvacea showed duel habitat. They were found on both wood and the soil. Amongst species growing in association of different types of substrates, the Agaricales were recorded from all the substrate types. In contrast, Cantharellales, Phallales and Russulales were recorded only from the soil. The Auriculariales, Dacrymycetales, Gomphales and Polyporales, on other hand, were recorded only from the wood substrate. On the basis of utility of species in different forms these were grouped into: (a) Edible, (b) Inedible, (c) Medicinal, (d) Worthless and (e) Poisonous. Indigenous characterization of wild mushrooms has revealed only 06 mushroom species viz., Termitomyces globules, T. heimii, T. microcarpus, T. fuliginosus, Macrolepiota procera and Astraeus hygrometricus which were used by locals as food purposes. Some of them (Astraeus hygrometricus, Termitomyces heimii and Macrolepiota procera) were also being sold in local market as a source of income (Fig.1). 


Fig. 1: Wild edible mushrooms of the study area: People selling Macrolepiota procera in Nawabganj (A) and Faizabad market (B), Collection of Termitomyces fuliginosus (C) and Astraeus hygrometricus (D) from forest by local for food.


Simple morphological forms such as colour, shape and their association were the key features for indigenous characterization. Local names were also found to be an important element when distinguishing edible mushrooms from other.  Conventional characterization of the wild mushrooms was performed by observing different features including cap colour, cap surface texture, gills/tubes and latex, spore print, fruiting body fleshiness, ecological classification. Through the conventional characterization, 18 species of wild mushrooms were found to be edible, 10 inedible, 3 poisonous, 3 medicinal and 12 of unknown edibility. Seven mushroom species were established as worthless due to their miniscule size. The edible species have been considered good in respect of their edibility. These species were: Astraeus hygrometricus, Auricularia sp., Calvatia sp., Chantharellus subalbidus, Coprinus comatus, Lentinus sp., Leucoagaricus sp., Macrolepiota procera, Phallus indusiatus, Pleurotus cystidiosus, Russula delica, R. nobilis, R. Senecis, Termitomyces fuliginosus, T. globules, T. heimii, T. Microcarpus, Tricholoma giganteum and V. Volvacea. The inedible species were not considered utilizable in form of food in spite of larger and fleshy sporocarp while few were hard and stiff in texture. These species were: Chlorophyllum brunneum, Daldinia concentric, Geastrum saccatum, Mutinus caninus, Panaeolus sp, Podoscypha petalodes, Tulostoma brumale, Volvariella bombycina, Xylaria polymorpha, Xylaria sp. The medicinal species were those whose medicinal properties have already been explored. This category of species includes: Ganoderma applanatum, G. Lucidum and Schizophyllum commune. The poisonous species were Amanita sp. Leucocoprinus medioflavus and Scleroderma sp. The worthless species included: Coprinus cinereus, Conocybe sp., Marasmius curreyi, M. epiphyllus, M. haematocephalus, M. siccus and Parasola plicatilis. Although some wild mushrooms such as Calvatia sp., Pleurotus cystidiosus, Russula sp., Tricholoma giganteum and Volvariella volvacea are edible, these were not consumed by local inhabitants because of unawareness in respect of edible nature of these mushrooms. There is also a scope of availability of better strain of mushroom whose germplasm may be collected and used in breeding experiments to improve the variety of mushrooms. Many edible (Macrolepiota procera, Volvariella volvacea, Pleurotus cystidiosus and Tricholoma giganteum) and medicinal (Ganoderma applanatum, G. Lucidum) mushrooms species which are unpopular among the local mushroom growers, are yet to be explored for their commercial cultivation in this part of the country. As the Tikri Reserved Forest is spread over a very large area, more surveys are needed over an extended period in order to explore entire mushroom flora with special reference to edible mushrooms. Overall, the findings of this study will be a reference database of wild mushroom of the Tikri reserved forest and their ethnomycological aspects which will help in future research works. (Link)



Fig.1 Wild mushrooms of Tikri Reserved Forest. 1. Astraeus hygrometicus; 2. Auricularia sp.; 3. Calvatia sp.; 4. Conocybe sp.; 5.  Chlorophyllum brunneum; 6. Dacropinax sp.;  7. Daldinia concentrica; 8. Ganoderma lucidum; 9. Geastrum saccatum; 10. Lentinus sp.; 11. Leucocoprinus cretaceous.; 12. L. medioflavus; 13. Macrolepiota procera; 14. Marasmius haematocephalus; 15. M. siccus; 16. Mutinus caninus; 17. Panaeolus sp.; 18. Pleurotus cystidiosus;  19. Podoscypha petalodes, 20.  Russula delica; 21.  R. nobilis; 22. R. senecis; 23. Schizophyllum commune; 24. Scleroderma sp. 25. Termitomyces  microcarpus; 26. T. fuliginosus; 27. Volvariella bombycina; 28. V. volvacia;  29. Xylaria sp.; 30.  X. polymorpha.


1)     Arora, D. (1986): Mushroom Demystified: A comprehensive guide to the fleshy fungi. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press.

2)     Siddhant, Walakulu Gamage and Mahesh Kumar (2019a): Diversity of macro fungi in Tikri Reserved forest of Gonda district, Uttar Pradesh.  Proceeding of National symposium on Trends & innovation in mushroom production technologies, diversification, processing & consumption organized by HAIC Agro R&D Centre, Murthal (Haryana). January 31-February 2, 2019. p.30.

3)     Siddhant, P.O. Ukaogo, Nidhi Singh and Mahesh Kumar (2019b):  An addition to the diversity of macro fungi in Tikri Reserved Forest, Gonda (U.P.) India. 11th Annual Scientific Conference on The role of Fungi in the Petroleum, Agro-allied and Pharmaceutical Industries organized by Mycological Society of Nigeria, Nigeria. October 06-09, 2019. P. 57.

4)     Singer, R. (1986): The Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy 4th Ed. Bishan Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun.    

      Cited this as: Siddhant, Ruchira Singh, Mahesh Kumar and R.S. Kanaujia (2020): Addition to the macro fungi of Tikri Reserved Forest, Gonda (U.P.) India. Proceeding of National Web Conference on “Mushroom Production: Recent Advances and Strategies for Successful & Sustainable Trade".  Banda (U.P.) India. October 5-6, 2020. BUAT Publication No. BUAT (P)-1/2021. :pp 54-65.