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Monday, 27 May 2013

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Oyster mushrooms is cultivated on a wide range of fresh agro-wastes. During its cultivation, a gradual depletion of nutrients from substrate takes place due to subsequent utilization of mushroom mycelium. This depleted substrate is known as spent mushroom substrate (SMS). Its reutilization gives additional benefit to mushroom growers. It can be utilized to prepare manure. It can also be used as feed for animals and as feeding material for vermicomposting and biogas production. 
In present communication, possibilities of reutilization of spent substrate was carried out for the cultivation  of various mushroom species.

Cultivation methodology:

The fresh wheat straw was selected as a substrate for the cultivation of three oyster species, viz., Pleurotus sajor-caju strain-Malaysia, P. flabellatus and P. florida Strain-P1. It was washed in fresh water and then pasteurized in the solution of formaldehyde (500ppm) and bavistin (75 ppm)for 18 hours as recommended by Vijay and Sohi (1987). Spent substrate, left after cultivation of Pleurotus eous was then autoclaved and mixed with this substrate at the rate of 10, 15 and 25%. The beds were prepared by layer spawning following the procedure of Bano(1971). These were incubated in cultivation room at 22-30 ° C for spawning running. When mycelium had completely covered the beds, the polythene covering was taken off and relative humidity was maintained 85-95%. Time lapsed in spawn running and Primordial development, yield and biological efficiency of mushroom was separately recorded for each oyster species. The biological efficiency was expressed as percentage yield of fresh mushroom in relation to dry weight of substrate (Chang and Miles,1989). 

Results and Discussion:

The spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was utilized by all the Pleurotus spp, viz., P. sajor-caju Strain- Malaysia, P. florida Strain- P1 and P. flabellatus. All the sets supplemented with SMS gave higher yield and biological efficiency than unsupplemented one (Control).

Cultivation of Oyster species (A) P. sajor-caju, (B) P. florida Strain  P1 (C) P. flabellatus on 25% SMS supplemented sets

The yield increased with increase in proportion of SMS supplementation. In case of Pleurotus sajor-caju and P. flabellatus, it was recorded significant only in 25% supplemented sets (345 g, 69% and 525 g, 105% respectively while in P. florida, the significant yield and B.E. was observed in 15 % and 25% SMS supplemented sets (550g, 110% and 565g, 113% respectively). It might be due to increased mineral and protein content in SMS(Silva et.al., 2002; Ceci Sales-Campos et.al., 2009)which is available to fungus after supplementation. The role of minerals in the fruiting of mushrooms is well established.(Table)(See Original)

Table: Effect of SMS supplementation on yield potential of mushroom


  • Bano, Z. (1971). Cultivation of Pleurotus flabellatus. Second Int. Symp. Pl. Pathol., New Delhi (Abstract No. 135)
  • Ceci Sales-Campos, Augusta Ferreira Eira, Marli Teixeira de Almeida Minhoni and meire Cristina Nugueira de Andrade (2009): Mineral composition of raw material, substrate and fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus in culture. Interciencia 34 (6): 432-436. 
  • Chang, S.T. and P.G. Miles (1989). Edible Mushrooms and Their Cultivation, CRC Press, Bocaa Raton, pp. 256-274.
  • Silva S.O., Costa S.M.G. and Clemente E.(2002): Chemical composition of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quel., substrates and residue after cultivation. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 45:531-535.
  • Vijay, B. and H.S. Sohi (1987). Cultivation of oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju(Fr.) Singer on chemically sterilized wheat straw. Mush. J. Tropics 7:67-75.

Cite this as:

Siddhant and C.S. Singh (2009). Recycling of spent oyster mushroom substrate to recover additional value. Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology. 5(2): 66-71


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