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Thursday, 2 April 2015

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BRACKET FUNGI: A GROWING MEDIUM FOR OYSTER MUSHROOM


According to a worldwide survey, about 90 kinds of wastes have been proven to be useful for oyster mushroom growing, among these, wastes such as cereal straw, saw dust and wood logs can be re-divided into at least 100 individual type of waste linked to different plant species. It means that in fact a range about 200 different wastes are available as oyster mushroom substrates (Poppe, 2004). Most of these wastes have a C/N ratio between 32 and 600 and a pH 5.0 and 7.5 (Poppe, 2000). A lot of work has been done in India and abroad for Pleurotus cultivation on various kinds of agro-wastes like cereal (Kaul et. al., 1981; Bano and Srivastava, 1962, Singh and Tandon, 1987; Ramzan et. al., 1987; Geetha and Sivaprakasam, 1994; Savalgi and Savalgi, 1994; Ram, 1995; Chaurasia, 1997; Chandra et. al., 1998; Dubey, 1999; Gupta et. al., 1999; Ram and Pant, 2002; Sharma, 2003; Toth 1970, Siddhant et. al., 2006, 2009 & 2013; Khan and Chaudary, 1989) and millet wastes (Rai, 1997), pulses (Pani et. al., 1997; Bugarski et.al., 1997; Jain and Vyas, 2005a&b) and oil crop wastes (Garcha et. al., 1981; Mohan 1994; Tagwira et. al., 1999; Sohi and Upadhyay, 1989; Pani et. al., 1998; Rana and Goyal 1994; Champawat and Chitale 2003; Poppe 2004; Kumar et. al., 2004; Nivedita and Singh, 2004), vegetable (Ganeshan et. al., 1989;  Sohi et. al., 1989; 2004) and fruit wastes (Jandaik, 1974; Jandaik and Kapoor, 1974 & 1976;  Upadhyay and Gohil, 2004; Yoshikawa and Tsuetaki, 1979; Poppe, 2004), beverage (Martinez and Lopez, 1982; Martinez and Guzmán, 1983; Martinez, 1984; Martinez et. al., 1984; León et. al., 1983; Martinez et. al., 1985; Guzmán and Martinez, 1986; Martinez and Guzmán, 1987; Martinez-Carrera, 1989) and sugarcane crop wastes (Guzmán et. al., 1987; Singh and Rai, 1998; Chandrashekar et.al., 2001; Chandrashekar and Savalgi 2003; Mishra et. al., 2004; Moda, 2005), cotton (Sun and Yu, 1989; Nout and Keya, 1983; Cho et. al., 1981; Danai et. al., 1989; Cho et. al., 1981) and palm wastes (Beig and Jandaik 1989; Theradi 1992;  Bhawna and Thomas 2003; Thomas and Rajagopal 2003; Geetha et.al., 2002), wood (Flack, 1917) and wood products (Shah et. al., 2004), grasses (Martinez-Carrera, 1989; Poppe et. al., 1997; Kiran and Jandaik, 1989; Das et. al., 2000; Singh and Kaushal, 2001; Poppe, 2004), weeds (Das et. al., 1988; Poppe, 1995, Gujral et. al., 1989; Poppe, 2004; Das et. al., 1985; Singh et. al., 1991; Negi and Gupta, 1995; Kumar et. al., 2000; Singh and Kanaujia ,2000) and spice plant waste (Martinez-Carrera, 1989; Gogoi and Adhikary, 2002) at different time interval, Although, on the commercial scale, only few of them have been accepted for Pleurotus cultivation. In Present communication, Pleurotus sajor-caju  was grown on bracket fungi. This experiment was carried out with three small beds, and it  is not intended to produce mushrooms targeted for human consumption, since the main objective is to know the acceptability of bracket fungi as a growing medium for oyster mushroom.


MATERIALS AND METHODS

Mushroom culture:

The pure culture of Pleurotus sajor-caju was obtained from the mushroom section of Plant Pathology Department, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur (U.P.) India. The culture was maintained and subcultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. 

Spawn strategy:
Wheat grain (Triticum aestivum) was used as a spawn substrate. It was purchased from the seed market of Faizabad. The spawn was prepared by the conventional method (Naraian et al., 2009).
  
Substrate and its preparation:

Bracket fungi were used as a growing medium for Pleurotus sajor-caju. These were collected from the field trip of Forestry Department, Ayodhya during the month of November, 2014. These were sun dried and washed in fresh water and autoclaved at 15 lbs for 30 min. 
Bracket fungi selected for mushroom cultivation



Cultivation methodology:

The spawning was done in multilayered (3) manner @ 15 % to the substrate under hygienic condition. The mushroom bags were incubated in a cultivation room at 22-30°C for spawn run. When the mycelium had completely covered the beds, the mouth of bags were opened and irrigated as per requirement. The room was moistened to maintain the relative humidity 85-95 per cent.  The fruit bodies of appropriate size were picked-up by gentle handling.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The result reveals that Pleurotus sajor-caju showed spawn run, primordial development and fruit body maturation on bracket fungi. They produced more the 50% of fresh mushroom on dry weight basis of substrate during three flushes.
First flush of Pleurotus sajor-caju on bracket fungi
It might be due to bracket fungi meet nutritional requirement, desire for mushroom growth. It is well known that fungus have a characteristic mode of nutrition and require performed organic compounds as a source of energy and carbon skeleton for biosynthesis.
Second flush of Pleurotus sajor-caju on bracket fungi
Simplest of these compounds are transported across the cell membrane, but more complex ones  must be degraded to monomers outside the cells. This is achieved by means of extracellular enzymes which are released through the walls. Bracket fungi belongs to order Aphyllophorales. As other fungi, they also contain chitinous cell wall which may act as important nitrogen source for growing Pleurotus mushroom. It is reported that a wide range of microorganism including mushrooms can hydrolyze chitin as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen by producing chitinolytic enzymes. The mushroom production on bracket fungi might be due to other reason (s).(PDF Copy)


Cited this as: R.S. Kanaujia, Jyoti Rastogi, Mahesh Kumar and Siddhant (2016): A demonstration of mushroom cultivation on Bracket fungi. Journal of Basic and Applied Mycology. 12(II): 93-97.

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