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Sunday, 20 May 2018

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Studies on Phyllosphere Fungi. III. Leaf Surface Fungi of Healthy and Virus Infected Lycopersicum esculentum in Relation to Cobalt Chloride Treatment

Foliar application of certain substances affect the germination and infection of leaf pathogenes (S o1, 1966). S o 1(1967, 1968) observed that the permeability of cell wall and thereby the leaf exudation is affected appreciably by the application of certain substances. The effects of certain substances have been studied in relation to specific leaf pathogens and no effort has earlier been made to investigate the effect of certain trace elements on the total leaf surface mycoflora. The effect of the trace elements on the virus multiplication and its effect on the phyllosphere mycoflora has also not been worked out earlier. Effort has, therefore, been made to investigate the effect of certain trace elements on phyllosphere mycoflora, virus multiplication and also the mutual interaction between virus and the phyllosphere population. Cobalt chloride has been selected for the present investigation. Twenty-two isolates were cultured from healthy and virus infected plants of tomato. Amongst the forms Phycomycetes were represented by 2 spp., Ascomycetes by 1 species, Deuteromycetes bz16 species and Mycelia by 3 species.
Rhizopus nigricans (OH, 20D, 70D), Aspergillus flavus (70H),Penicillium sp. 1 (OD, 40-H), Aspergillus ustus (100 D), A. fumigatus (70 H), Penicillium sp. 2 (100 H), Alternaria tenuis (10 H), white sterile colonies (10 D, 20 H) were dominant species in the sets indicated in the brackets in case where cobalt chloride was irrigated in nutrient solution. In CoCl2 sprayed sets, Aspergillus flavus (40 D, 70 D), A. aculeatus OD, 20-H, D, 40 H, 70 H), Penicillium chrysogenum (OH, 100-H,D), Alternaria tenuis (10 H, D) were dominant species in the sets indicated in the brackets. Aspergillus nidulans (OH), A. terreus (40 D), Penicillium sp. 2 (100 H), Cladosporium herbarum, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium nivale, Black sterile colonies (10 H), in irrigated set; Mucor hiemalis (10 H), Gliocladium roseum (70 H). Grey sterile colonies (70 D) in sprayed set were found to be of restricted distribution and could only be isolated from sets indicated in the brackets. Aspergillus flavus, Penicillum sp. 1 and Alternaria tenuis were the forms which were isolated from 5 or more than 5 sets. The pattern of distribution of fungal species varied differently in different sets. 5, 8, 5, 1, 3 and 2 species from irrigated set and 8, 11, 7, 6, 8, 6 species from sprayed sets were isolated from healthy plants of 0, 10, 20, 40 70 and 100 ppm cobalt levels respectively, whereas 5, 3, 4, 2, 4 and 1 species were cultured from irrigated set, and 7, 6, 7, 3, 3 and 3 species were recorded from sprayed set of diseased plants from corresponding concentrations of cobalt chloride. Highest and lowest number of fungal species from healthy plants in irrigated set were obtained from 10 and 40 ppm cobalt levels respectively. The corresponding values for diseased plants in irrigated set were recorded from 0 and 100 concentrations respectively. The maximum and minimum number of fungal species from healthy plants of sprayed set were observed in 10 and 40 and 100 ppm levels respectively. In the diseased plants the maximum fungal species were obtained from control (0) and 20 ppm and the minimum from 40, 70 and 100 ppm sets. The distribution of fungal population in phyllosphere region in irrigated sets is not very regular. The highest and the lowest fungal population of this category of healthy plants was obtained from 10 and 70 ppm cobalt concentrations respectively whereas these values for diseased plants or irrigated set were represented by 40 and 100 ppm sets respectively. In sprayed set, however, in the healthy plants the highest and lowest population was observed in 40, and 0 and 100 ppm sets respectively whereas these values for diseased plants were represented by 40 and 100 ppm cobalt level set. Thirteen fungal isolates were isolated from all the sets of two treatments of cobalt chloride. 13 and 7 fungal species were recorded from Phylloplane regions of plants irrigated and sprayed respectively. Of 13 isolates, cultured from both the treatments, 1 belong to Phycomycetes, 1 to Ascomycetes, 9 to Deuteromycetes and 2 to Mycelia Sterilia. Aspergilli overnumbered throughout the course of present investigation. Only Aspergillus nidulans (10 D) was of restricted occurrence in irrigated set. Rhizopus nigricans, Aspergillus lavus, A. niger, Penicillum sp. 1 and white sterile fungus in irrigated set; R. nigricans, A. jlavus, Penicillium sp. 1 and white sterile fungus in sprayed set, were of frequent occurrence and were isolated from various sets of two treatment. Aspergillus jumigatus (10D), A. niger (40 D, 70 D), A. ustus (10 H), Penicillium sp. 1 (OH, D, 20-H, D) and white sterile fungus (40 H, 70 H, 100-H, D) were dominant fungi in cobalt irrigated sets. R. nigricans (OH, D, 10-H, D and 20 D), Aspergillus jlavus (20 H, 40-H, D), A. aculeatus (20 H) and Penicillium sp. 1 (70 D, 100-H, D) were dominant species in sprayed sets indicated in the bracket. In irrigated set 4, 4, 5, 5, 3 and 3 species from H plants and 5, 4, 4, 4, 4 and 6 species from D plants were obtained from 0 to 100 ppm cobalt levels respectively. In sprayed set, however, 2, 5, 5, 3, 6 and 3 species from H plants were isolated from 0—100 ppm cobalt concentrations respectively, and in D plants 3, 5, 4, 5, 4, 5 species were obtained from corresponding concentrations of cobalt respectively. In general, cobalt chloride concentration was found to be more effective, when it is used as sprays than was supplied through irrigation and the effect was more prominent on diseased plants than healthy ones. The virus concentration in irrigated diseased plants was found to be 203, 205, 227, 233, 204 and 62 in 0—100 ppm sets respectively. The height, fresh and dry weight of the shoot in irrigated set were greatly affected by cobalt levels. Increasing concentration of cobalt in irrigated sets gradually decreased the growth of the plants. In the sets where cobalt chloride was sprayed, the virus concentrations from 0 to 100 ppm sets was 81, 37, 35, 34, 32 and 30 respectively. In this treatment the virus concentration decreased throughout whit increasing cobalt chloride concentration. Stunting, chlorosis gradually increased with increasing cobalt level in irrigated set while at 100 ppm level most of the leaves started dying. 

SUMMARY
 Phyllosphere and Phylloplane of healthy and virus infected plants of Lycopersicum esculentum in relation to cobalt chloride treatment has been investigated. The cobalt chloride sprayed on leaf surface was more effective than that supplied to plants trough irrigation. The different levels of cobalt behaved differently in both sprayed and irrigated sets. To certain extent increasing concentration of Co Cl2 stimulated the mycoflora, the higher concentration, however, proved detrimental to fungi. Higher concentration of cobalt chloride proved detrimental to the morphological status of plant also.

Cite this as: Mishra RR and RS Kanaujia (1971): Studies on Phyllosphere Fungi. III. Leaf Surface Fungi of Healthy and Virus Infected Lycopersicum esculentum in Relation to Cobalt Chloride Treatment. Sydowia, Annaleas Mycologici Ser. II. XXV(1-6): 212-218.

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